Enabling Technologies and New Markets
September 15-17, 2008
San Diego, California

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Special Workshop: Science & Technology of Nanocomposites

Session 1: Novel Preparation and Manufacturing Methods
Session Organizer: Prof. Sadhan C. Jana, University of Akron

Session 2: Properties, Modelling, and Characterization
Session Organizer: Prof. Fengge Gao, Nottingham Trent University

Session 3: Commercial Applications: Industrial & Consumer Applications
Session Organizer: Lance Criscuolo, General Manager, Zyvex Performance Materials

Session 4: Nanocomposites for Energy Applications
Session Organizer: Alex Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies LLC


Workshop: Science & Technology of Nanocomposites

Part 1: Fundamentals on Nanocomposites
Instructor: Prof. Miriam Rafailovich

  • Introduction: Why are nano-particles so popular?
  • Structure: Survey of different types of nano-particles-and their cost.
  • Polymer nanocomposites: The importance of surfaces and interfaces in nanocomposites design.
  • Confined structures: Fibers, nano-patterned materials, effects of confinement and interfacial interactions on rheology.
  • Characterization: Nanoscale characterization of the structure, morphology, and rheology: from microscopy to neutron scattering.
  • Applications: Several examples--flame retardant materials, compatiblization, gas barriers--i.e. soda bottles.

Part 2: Polymer nanocomposites of clay, silica, and hybrid nanoparticles
Instructor: Prof. Sadhan Jana

  • Introduction
  • Filler-polymer compatibility
  • Filler modification
  • Nanocomposites synthesis strategies
  • Review of properties
  • Future outlook of the field

Part 3: Carbon based nanocomposites
Instructor: Prof. Fengge Gao

  • Allotropic forms of carbon and their potential in nanotechnology application
  • Fullerene
  • Carbon nanotubes and Nanographite technology
  • Carbon filler enhanced polymer nanocomposites

Part 4: Is there reason for concern regarding nanoparticle toxicity?
Instructor: Prof. Miriam Rafailovich

Nanotechnology is revolutionizing the way materials are engineered today. Because of their large surface to volume ratio nanoparticles are the driving force behind many new technologies. Inorganic functionalized nanoparticles are used to produce UV resistant and flame retardant plastics for automotive and aviation industries. Metallic nanoparticles are used as viscosity modifiers for lubricants and to control the dielectric properties of electronic coatings. Oxide particles are used in cosmetics to produce brighter pigmentation and UV protection, and magnetic nanoparticles are used to deliver chemotherapy to targeted organs or as NMR contrast enhancers.

When considering consumer applications of nanosized materials, the potential long-term adverse effects on living species must also be considered. For example, lung damage caused by nanoparticles has been reported to be more severe than that caused by conventional toxic dust (Oberdorster 2004). Lam et al. demonstrated that carbon nanotubes can cause lung granulomas in mice (Lam 2004). Other studies have shown that titanium dioxide (TiO2), a naturally occurring mineral previously classified as biologically inert, can cause inflammatory reactions both in animals and humans when ground into particles smaller than 20 nm (Ophus 1979, Lindenschmidt 1990, Oberdorster 1994) and cells cultured in the presence of alumina or titania nanoparticles show a dramatic decrease in growth rate even after two hours of exposure (Gutwein 2004). Furthermore single-walled carbon nanotubes have been shown to elicit changes in NF-KB signaling in response to oxidative stress leading to alterations in inflammatory cytokine expression and inhibition of cell proliferation (Manna et al, 2005).

The mechanisms (i.e.: endocytosis, pinocytosis) by which inert nanoparticles enter cells are still debated. Regardless of the method of entry, all reports thus far indicate, that once inside the cell, the particles can trigger chemical changes whose impact must be evaluated in a case by case system.

The interaction of particles with whole tissue physiology is complex. In order to understand the mechanisms leading to adverse events we have chosen to focus on the interactions of nanoparticles with cells and tissues and to evaluate viability, proliferative potential, differentiation and alterations in host response (inflammation, signal transductions, tissue remodeling), as well as determining cytotoxicity. We will explore the role of aspect ratio, size, chemistry, and coatings.

With this set of particles we will then study the processes which lead to particle penetration into the cell, storage in specific subcellular locations, and the sequence of events which occurs intracellularly once the particles have entered. These include the time it takes for cells to process the particles, the dose response, the degree to which the cells are hindered from performing their normal functions, and the ability of cells to recover once extracellular nanoparticles are removed. Finally, we will discuss what can be done to minimize adverse interactions when using nanoparticles in the design of new biomaterials and tissue scaffolds.

Session 1: Novel Preparation and Manufacturing Methods
Session Organizer: Prof. Sadhan C. Jana, University of Akron
PLENARY LECTURE: Fifteen Years of Nanocomposites Research: What is Novel About Nanoparticles and Manufacturing Methods Sadhan C. Jana, Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Akron
New and Novel Techniques to Fabricate Carbon Nanotubes Containing Polymer Nanocomposites Suprakas Sinha Ray, National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa
Reversible Infrared Actuation of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Liquid Crystalline Elastomer
Liqiang Yang¹, Kristina Setyowati², An Li², Shaoqin Gong¹ ³ and Jian Chen²
¹Department of Mechanical Engineering; ²Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry; and ³Department of Materials, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Nanocomposite Gels and Soft Nanocomposites: Unique Organic/Inorganic Network Structures with Extraordinary Optical, Mechanical and Functional Properties Kazutoshi Haraguchi, Kawamura Institute of Chemical Research
Thermal Transport in Composite Materials and its Interfaces Ajit K. Roy, Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate
Mechanical Behavior of Electrospun Polymer Nanofibers - From a Linking Scale Perspective Shing-Chung Wong¹, , Avinash Baji¹, Siwei Leng²
¹Department of Mechanical Engineering, ²Institute of Polymer Science, The University of Akron
Metal -Polymer Nanocomposites for Opto-Magneto-Electronic Materials Norman Luechinger¹, Greg Heness², Norman Booth², Stark Wendelin¹, and Sri Bandyopadhyay³
¹ETH Zurich, ²UTS Australia, ³SMSE/UNSW, Australia
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Session 2: Properties, Modelling, and Characterization
Session Organizer: Prof. Fengge Gao, Nottingham Trent University

PLENARY LECTURE: Submicro vs Nano: A New Challenge or an Old Regime? Fengge Gao, Yalan Li and Steven Moloney, Nanoscience Laboratory, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University
Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of PP-MWNT Nanocomposites Martin Ganß¹, Bhabani K. Satapathy², Mahendra Thunga¹³, Roland Weidisch¹³ (speaker), Petra Pötschke³, Andreas Janke³, Dieter Jehnichen³,
¹ Institute of Materials Science and Technology (IMT), Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena GERMANY; ² Centre for Polymer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi INDIA; ³ Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research, Dresden GERMANY
Study on Fire Behavior of High Impact Polystyrene-Clay Nanocomposite and Triphenyl Phosphite G. Sanchez-Olivares¹, (speaker) A. Sanchez-Solis¹, O. Manero¹ and G Camino²
¹ Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México MEXICO; ²Centro di Cultura per l'Ingegneria delle Materie Plastiche, ITALY
Processing and Properties of Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene-Based Nanocomposites Nathalie Chapleau, Industrial Materials Institute - National Research Council of Canada
Anisotropic Reinforcement in Nanocomposites: Preorientation of Filler Network, Magnetic Tuning J. Jestin¹, N. Jouault¹, F. Cousin¹, I. Dubois¹, C. Ménager², R. Schweins³, J. Oberdisse*, F. Boué¹.
¹ Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), CEA/CNRS, Gif/Yvette France; ² Laboratoire Liquides Ioniques et Interfaces Chargées (LI2C), Paris France; ³ Institut Laue-Langevin, DS/LSS, Grenoble France; * Laboratoire des Colloïdes, Verres et Nanomatériaux (LCVN), Montpellier France
Well Dispersed Polymer-Silica Nanocomposites: Connectivity Transition in Filler Structure and Double Transition in Mechanical Behaviour Nicolas Jouault¹ (speaker), Perrine Vallat¹, Jacques Jestin¹, Florent Dalmas², Sylvère Said³ and François Boué¹
¹ Laboratoire Léon Brillouin (LLB), Gif-sur-Yvette, France; ² Institut Chimie et Matériau de Paris Est, Thiais, France; ³ Laboratoire Polymère Propriétés aux Interfaces et Composites(L2PIC), Lorient, France
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Session 3: COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS: Industrial & Consumer Applications
Session Organizer: Lance Criscuolo, General Manager, Zyvex Performance Materials
PLENARY LECTURE: Roadmap for Nanocomposites Towards Commercialization Hariharan Ramasubramanian, Frost & Sullivan
Automotive Industry Applications of Nanocomposites Will Rodgers, General Motors
Multi-Functional Nano-Materials for Advanced Automotive Applications W. (Voytek) S. Gutowski, Weidong Yang, Phil Casey, and Sheng Li, CSIRO Materials Science and Enginerering, Australia
Commercialization of Nanocomposites Lance Criscuolo, General Manager, Zyvex Performance Material
Commercialization of the POSS Nanostructured Chemical Platform Joseph Schwab, Hybrid Plastics, Inc.
Applications of Halloysite Nanotubes in Polymer Composites Aaron L. Wagner (speaker), Cathy A. Fleischer, Robert C. Daly, and Michael Duffy, NaturalNano Inc.
Commercial Introduction of LDH Nanoclays Ross C. Opsahl, Akzo Nobel Polymer Chemicals LLC
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Session 4: Nanocomposites for Energy Applications
Session Organizer: Alex Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies LLC

PLENARY LECTURE: Energy Technology Breakthroughs Enabled by Nanocomposites Alex Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies, LLC
Buckypaper for Energy Storage and Conversion Nanocomposites Jim Zheng, Richard Liang and Ben Wang, Florida State University
Plasma Synthesis of Nanoparticles for Nanocomposite Energy Applications Peter C. Kong, Idaho National Laborator, and Alex W. Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies, LLC
Recent Advances in Developing Platinum Monolayer Electrocatalyst Nanocomposites for the O2 Reduction Reaction in Fuel Cells M. B. Vukmirovic, K. Sasaki, W-P. Zhou, M. Li, P. Liu, J.X. Wang, R. R. Adzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes for Improved Efficiency of OLED and OPV Nanocomposites Ilia Ivanov¹(speaker), David Geohegan¹, Bin Hu², Matthew Garrett², Zhihua Xu², Ming Shao²
¹Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; ²University of Tennessee Knoxville
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