Nanomaterials for Industry 2014

Energy, Environment, Products
April 6-9, 2014
Crowne Plaza
San Diego, California


CONFERENCE SESSIONS

MONDAY, April 7, 2014

Session 1: Nanomaterials for Energy Applications

Session 2: Nanomaterials Going Commercial

TUESDAY, April 8, 2014

Session 3: Manufacturing and Characterization of Nanomaterials

Session 4: Open Innovation in Nanomaterials

WEDNESDAY, April 9, 2014

Session 5: Nanomaterials in Medicine and the Environment

CONFERENCE AGENDA

Click on a lecture title to view the abstract.

Sunday April 6, 2014

2:00-5:30pm   Special Workshop: Graphene/Carbon nanotubes: properties, manufacturing techniques, and applications.
Workshop Leader: Prof. Fengge Gao, Nottingham Trent University

7:30pm   Welcome Reception and Check-in

Monday, April 7, 2014

7:30am   Continental Breakfast and Check-in



8:00am

Keynote Address: Carbon in Nano and Outer Space Nobel Laureate Sir Harold Kroto, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University

Keynote Address: Carbon in Nano and Outer Space

Nobel Laureate Sir Harold Kroto, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University

Curiosity about the chemistry in the atmosphere of an old red giant star about a light year in diameter (ie 10,000 million, million meters) resulted in advances in technology at nanometer scale, i.e. 100 millionth of a meter, which is some million, million, million, million times smaller.

When Galileo first used his telescope and realised that the phases of Venus provided the incontrovertible evidence which confirmed the Copernican heliocentric system it cemented his position as one of, if not the, "Father of Science". Thus Science itself was born out of curiosity, not out of expedience, and it is still true today that almost all major breakthroughs are made by the openly curious who generally discover what those with more focused minds tend to overlook.

Particularly fascinating, curious and crucial has been the role that the element carbon has played in almost every aspect of the development of our understanding of both the physical and natural sciences. Carbon chemistry is uniquely profuse, ie Organic Chemistry. As it is the basis of biology, it is hard to conceive that life could be based on any other element. The most recent big surprise that the element had up its sleeve was the existence of C60, Buckminsterfullerene, the third well-defined form of carbon - the other two being graphite and diamond. The discovery of this molecule was made serendipitously during laboratory experiments which attempted to simulate the conditions in some stars. Follow up work from the C60 discovery led to the re-discovery of the carbon nanotubes which promise paradigm shifting advances in materials engineering and catalysed the birth of Nanoscience and Nanotehnology (N&N).

Research on carbon chain molecules at Sussex in the mid-1970's led to the detection of these chains in interstellar space by radioastronomy together with Canadian astronomers. A little later these species were detected in red giant carbon stars. It was during experiments, using an advanced technique, developed at Rice University for studying clusters, to probe the formation of the chains in these stars that the C60 cage was discovered serendipitously in 1985. Amazingly in 2010 the tell-tale fingerprint signature of C60 was found in infrared spectra obtained by NASA's Spitzer satellite telescope. This sequence of events is yet another example of the remarkable way in which fundamental science, in particular in this case the fascination with space has led to major breakthroughs with important implications for innovative technological applications on Earth. The history of scientific progress carries a serious health warning for those who think that fundamental science can be steered by bureaucratic decision-making and the story of the discovery of "Buckminsterfullerene - The Third Form Carbon" and its key role in the birth of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology is yet another example.

Session 1: Nanomaterials for Energy Applications

9:00am

Global Technology Advancements in Nanomaterial Systems for Energy Applications Alex Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies, Columbus, Ohio

Global Technology Advancements in Nanomaterial Systems for Energy Applications

Alex Kawczak, StrateNexus Technologies, Columbus, Ohio

The promise of green technology for abundant energy supply will not come to pass without the accelerated development and commercialization of next generation nanostructured materials. Affordable and clean energy transformation, storage and distribution will not be achieved without nanostructured materials and advanced processing technologies. The first and second generation smart energy grid, have a high probability of being rendered obsolete within a decade of their implementation by global technology advancements in nanomaterial systems. This envisioned transformative impact on the energy grid, will change the competitiveness and survival of major corporations that utilize the energy grid to supply the energy needs of the nation. The emergence of a new paradigm based on nanotechnology enabled hybridization of energy sources will become dominant and threaten the long established and primary objectives of the energy grids existence. The development and commercialization of nanostructured system solutions will further enable and accelerate the creation of abundant natural gas and hydrogen fueled electricity generation. The hybridization of energy sources such as fossil fuels and alternative energy enabled by nanotechnology platforms will be rapidly demonstrated within a new paradigm. As an example, natural gas based electricity will be coupled and integrated with solar energy transformation devices, to significantly impact many of the major energy markets in this century.


9:30am

Energy Harvesting: An Integrated View of Materials, Devices and Applications Harry B. Radousky, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UIUC-Illinois Applied Research Institute

Energy Harvesting: An Integrated View of Materials, Devices and Applications

Harry B. Radousky, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and UIUC-Illinois Applied Research Institute

Energy harvesting refers to the set of processes by which useful energy is captured from waste, environmental, or mechanical sources and is converted into a usable form. The discipline of energy harvesting is a broad topic that includes established methods and materials such as photovoltaics and thermoelectrics, as well as technologies that convert mechanical energy, bio-energy and magnetic energy to electricity. This talk will briefly review various state-of-the-art materials and devices for direct energy conversion and highlight the nano-materials science underlying energy harvesting principles and devices based on a recent review article: H. B. Radousky and H. Liang 2012 Nanotechnology 23 502001 doi:10.1088/0957-4484/23/50/502001. Additionally, I will focus on our recent results using ZnO nanowires to harvest energy from low quality waste heat and mechanical motion, as well as a discussion of considerations for developing in-situ powered nanoporous membranes for desalination applications.

This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-645295.


10:00am

Platinum Monolayer Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Direct Energy Conversion Radoslav R. Adzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

Platinum Monolayer Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for Direct Energy Conversion

Radoslav R. Adzic, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York

The direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy in fuel cells offers the promise of high efficiency electrical power generation by avoiding limitations of thermal-to-mechanical conversion in internal combustion engines. When operated on hydrogen, fuel cell emissions contain only water. Thus efficient hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) are a promising technology to lower pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation vehicles. However, full commercialization of HFCV will depend upon further advances to lower cost and improve performance. The most challenging HFCV fuel cell process is the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode. The reaction is difficult to catalyze, resulting in significant efficiency loss and the use of large amounts of expensive platinum catalyst, which remains the only viable ORR catalyst. The cathode environment also leads to platinum corrosion, reducing cathode lifetime. We developed platinum monolayer electrocatalysts that have very promising properties to enable HFCV to be fully viable for large scale production.

Platinum monolayer nanostructured electrocatalysts were developed principally for the oxygen reduction reaction starting with fundamental studies on single crystal substrates, supported by theoretical treatments, synthetizing nanoparticles, followed by scale-up syntheses and fuel cell tests. These catalysts consist of nanometer-scale core-shell particles with monolayers of platinum that are supported by metal, metal alloy, or nanostructured noble metal/non-noble metal cores. In addition to an ultra-low Pt content (one monolayer) and high Pt utilization (all atoms are on the surface and can participate in the reaction), these catalysts are characterized by very high activity and stability induced by supporting nanoparticle cores, by the ability to tune the catalytic activity of a Pt monolayer depending on the properties of the top atomic layer of the cores, and by a self-healing property. The latter two properties open particularly broad possibilities for applications of these catalysts. Examples of tunable activity include electrocatalysts consisting of a Pt monolayer on smooth core surfaces, Pd tetrahedral nanoparticles, Pd nanowire and hollow Pd nanoparticle cores will be discussed. High performance and several times lower Pt content, compared with other catalysts, makes them a very attractive route to achieve a broad commercialization of fuel cells.


10:30am

Coffee Break

11:00am

The Application of One-dimensional Carbon Nanomaterials in Supercapacitors Delong Li, Chunxu Pan (speaker), Wuhan University, China

The Application of One-dimensional Carbon Nanomaterials in Supercapacitors

Delong Lia, Chunxu Pana,b, (speaker), Wuhan University, China

  1. School of Physics and Technology and Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, China
  2. Center for Electron Microscopy, Wuhan University, China

In recent years, one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) have received a great deal of attentions in application of supercapacitor, because of its unusual structure and unique physical and chemical properties. This paper introduces the latest research works in our group on applications of one-dimensional carbon nanomaterials in supercapacitor, including:

  1. High concentration nitrogen-doped coiled CNFs were directly synthesized from amine flames. The results revealed that: (1) the CNFs exhibited a stable screw-pitch with diameters in a range from 40 to 100 nm and length longer than 10 µm; (2) The N content was as high as 11% and it was dominated as a 'graphite-like' structure; (3) the CNFs showed a larger capacitance and more excellent electrochemical properties than that of the electrode prepared by using conventional CNTs from CVD process.
  2. We systematically studied the synthesis, morphology and structure characteristics and electrochemical properties of CNTs grown on nickel foam by CVD method, and demonstrated the improvement of its capacitance and impedance characteristics for the good conductive contact between CNTs and nickel foam. Our study provides a new way to shorten the electrode fabrication into one-step.
  3. The CNTs/TiO2 composites were synthesized by hydrothermal reaction. It is found that the capacitance of this composite was improved and which could be enhanced through UV pretreatment. Therefore, a new technique to improve electrode surface chemical characteristic and electrochemical properties by aid of UV light treatment is introduced.

11:30am

The Path Towards All-Carbon Photovoltaics Jeff Blackburn, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The Path Towards All-Carbon Photovoltaics

Jeff Blackburn, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado

The exceptional properties of carbon nanomaterials, including - tunable optical absorption and transmission, remarkably high electrical conductivity, and stability towards many harsh environments - make them attractive for photovoltaic devices in both the active layer as well as in transparent electrodes. In this presentation, I will focus on some recent advances in our lab towards understanding and manipulating the electrical and optical properties of graphene and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films for use in thin-film photovoltaics. I will briefly discuss previous results demonstrating the potential for SWCNT thin films as transparent conducting electrodes in thin-film organic and inorganic photovoltaics, putting these results in a broader context by comparison to our more recent results for single- to multi-layer graphene transparent conductors. I will then discuss ways in which SWCNTs may be incorporated into the active layer of photovoltaics. SWCNTs can be used as charge acceptors in polymer photovoltaics where the polymer absorbs the majority of solar photons, or can be the main active absorbing component in active layers where other species such as fullerenes accept charges from the photoexcited SWCNTs. Progress in each of these areas is paving the way towards the attractive possibility of next-generation PV devices made almost entirely of carbon.


12:00pm

Lunch

1:30pm

Multi-Functional Nano-Systems for Energy Conversion and Charge Transport W. (Voytek) S. Gutowski (speaker), Phil Casey, Sheng Li and Weldong Yang, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering Functional Interphase and Coatings, Australia

Multi-Functional Nano-Systems for Energy Conversion and Charge Transport

W. (Voytek) S. Gutowski (speaker), Phil Casey, Sheng Li and Weldong Yang, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering Functional Interphase and Coatings, Australia

This paper focuses on nanomaterials and hybrid systems for energy management and conversion through the active and passive control of spectral electromagnetic radiation using novel IR and UV absorbing/reflective hybrid systems. Advanced nano-systems facilitating charge transfer along the surfaces of non-conductive materials are also discussed in this paper.

These provide viable platforms for the development of new-generation polymeric and non-polymeric devices equipped with functional features such as: "roll-up" displays and photo-voltaic devices, photo-chromic windows, flexible electroluminescent lighting panels, smart surface materials, sensors and others.

Such functional devices are of increasing interest of designers and manufacturers in the automotive, aerospace, construction and other industries.


2:00pm

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube-Based Hybrid Nanomaterials For Energy Applications Yi-Hsuan Tseng, Wei Chen, and Long Que (speaker), Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University

Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube-Based Hybrid Nanomaterials For Energy Applications

Yi-Hsuan Tseng, Wei Chen, and Long Que (speaker), Institute for Micromanufacturing, Louisiana Tech University

Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based suspension and thin film show excellent absorption of light and thermal radiation. The CNT-based nanofluids and thin film thus have been exploited and integrated within some energy harvesting devices for scavenging light and waste heat, and converting them into useful electricity [1-2].

It is also well known that nanoparticles (NPs), such as Au and Au/CuS core-shell NPs, can efficiently release heat under optical excitation. The electric field of the light strongly drives mobile carriers inside the NPs, and the energy gained by carriers (i.e., electrons) turns into heat. As a result, the heat diffuses away from the NPs and leads to an elevated temperature of the surrounding medium. In particular, heat generation becomes especially strong in the case of metallic NPs in the regime of plasmon resonance, a collective motion of a large number of electrons.

In order to take advantages of the unique optical and thermal properties of CNT and metallic NPs. Recently we have synthesized a new type of CNT-based hybrid nanomaterial to further enhance the light absorption and thus improve the light-to-heat conversion efficiency. Specifically the CNT-Au/CuS core-shell NP hybrid nanomaterials have been synthesized by attaching Au/CuS core-shell NPs on the CNTs. Experiments have found that the hybrid nanomaterial solution shows significantly improved absorption (at least 20%) of light from UV- visible to near infrared (IR) over the CNT solution. This absorption enhancement across this broad wavelength range indicates the possibility to improve the energy conversion efficiency. We are optimizing this type of hybrid nanomaterial and are integrating this nanomaterial with devices to demonstrate the energy harvesting.

References:

  1. Y. He, S. Vasiraju and L. Que, "A fluidic microenergy generator enabled by hybrid nanomaterial nanofluids," Proc. IEEE Sensors Conference, 2013 (in press)
  2. Z. Gong, Y. He, A. Tseng, C. O'Neal and L. Que, "A micromachined carbon nanotube film cantilever-based energy cell," Nanotechnology, 23 (2012) 33540

2:30pm

Carbon Fiber and Nanostructured Material Systems and Processes for Manufacturing Cylinders/Tanks for Hydrogen and Natural Gas Storage S. Ozcan, F. L. Paulauskas, C. Eberle, R. E. Norris, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Carbon Fiber and Nanostructured Material Systems and Processes for Manufacturing Cylinders/Tanks for Hydrogen and Natural Gas Storage

S. Ozcan, F. L. Paulauskas, C. Eberle, R. E. Norris, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

With its continued focus on reducing US dependence on foreign oil supplies, the Department of Energy (DOE) has directed significant priority towards eliminating barriers to more wide-spread implementation of both hydrogen and natural gas as vehicle fuels. Although a variety of storage mechanisms are being exploited, high pressure gas storage is the current baseline. Vehicle gravimetric and volumetric storage goals favor carbon fiber composite tanks, especially if cost targets can be met. In tackling the carbon fiber cost issues, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has ongoing efforts to reduce the cost of carbon fiber utilized in high pressure storage applications. Alternative precursors and advanced processing methods are being considered for reducing the carbon fiber costs. ORNL is leveraging significant experience in both precursor and conversion technologies for both low-cost and high performance carbon fiber applications in this mission.

This paper will cover key aspects of how ORNL manages precursor chemistry and processing approaches and how they contribute to the ultimate nano-structure of the carbon fiber, which ultimately controls fiber properties. Morphological observations and theory are combined to describe objectives for trading off modulus, strength, and cost towards optimizing fiber properties for high pressure storage applications. Also vital to application success is the fiber/matrix interface where ORNL has specialized tools for tailoring fiber surface and fiber/resin compatibility in the interfacial region. In addition to what has already been demonstrated, this paper will also touch on approaches proposed by ORNL and others for incorporating various nano-materials in the fibers, resins, and/or interfacial regions to improve targeted properties.


3:00pm

Coffee Break
Session 2: Nanomaterials Going Commercial

3:15pm

Keynote Presentation: Nano Technologies for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Automotive Industries W. H. Katie Zhong, Westinghouse Distinguished Professor, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, and Russell G. Maguire, President, The Global Nanocomposites, LLC, Boeing Technical Fellow (retired)

Keynote Presentation: Nano Technologies for Next Generation Materials for Aerospace and Automotive Industries

W. H. Katie Zhong, Westinghouse Distinguished Professor, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, and Russell G. Maguire, President, The Global Nanocomposites, LLC, Boeing Technical Fellow (retired)

Globally, various lightweight and high performance materials and their manufacturing technologies are being actively developed in numerous industrial sectors, from advanced composites in aerospace to high-rate commercial thermoplastics and composites in ground transportation, in both cases for their structures and interiors. There are two key market factors that drive this growth: (1) the demand for higher performance materials, and (2) the mandate for greater energy efficiency during material manufacturing. Nanotechnology has shown early promise of effectively improving their performances through the incorporation of unique and novel nanomaterials.

Challenges that may block the broad applications of nanomaterials in volume material structure productions are related to quality assessment, performance stability, environment concerns, and manufacturing energy efficiency, as well as the compatibility with existing processing conditions. These cannot currently be managed in a large factory environment. The dictate from industry is that nano-systems utilized in production need to be handled, process-controlled, and produced within a robust and efficient set of processes. i.e. be factory-friendly with feasible quality assurance methods suitable for advanced high-rate manufacturing.

With these considerations, in this talk the authors will introduce a series of scaling-up nano technologies for manufacturing advanced nano-modified materials including a new quality assurance tool-set viable for industry to quantitatively assess, control and examine the final products with nanomaterials incorporated. Our talk will include a preliminary attempt to map developing nanomaterials to visions for next generation aero and auto transportation.


4:00pm

Nanotech Industry in Cosmetics Prof. João Paulo Longo, Brasília University, Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology

Nanotech industry in Cosmetics

Prof. João Paulo Longo, Brasília University, Laboratory of Nanobiotechnology

Nanotech industry is widespread in the most different field, such as pharmaceutical; semiconductors; cosmetics; materials science etc. Looking back the number of nanotech products available in the market we can observe that health and beauty products had increased their number, reaching levels near to twenty percent of the nanotech products available in the market. Especially in the cosmetic sector, the regulatory barriers have been overcome and the number of products in the market increased significantly in the last five years. [Nanotech Industry in Cosmetics] Observing the value chain of nano-based cosmetic industry, we can conclude that are three main different fields in this single are: (1) the research and development sectors, represented by the university and small biotech companies, (2) the producers of nano-based industrial inputs, represented by industries that produces intermediate inputs for final products, and (3) industries that produces the final products containing the intermediate inputs and provide the final products. All these three fields are growing fast in the last five years, and there is a growth trend to these areas because of the tendency of relaxation of sanitary barriers in the nanotech cosmetic industry. [Success Case] To exemplify this discussion we can present a case report of a star-up company based on University of Brasília that works on the three areas of the nano-based cosmetic industry. Nanodynamics was created by PhD students in 2010, and lunched their first nanotech cosmetic product in 2012. The perspectives are the development and production of a series of five nano-based cosmetic products during 2013.


4:30pm

Nanoscale Purification System for Environmental Water David Wendell, Department of Biomedical, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati

Nanoscale Purification System for Environmental Water

David Wendell, Department of Biomedical, Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati

The extensive use of antibiotics in recent decades has contributed to an increase in antibiotic resistance amongst a wide variety of microorganisms. Agriculture, aquaculture, human health care, and a variety of sanitation and pharmaceutical operations have resulted in the increased release of antibiotics into terrestrial and aquatic environments serving to proliferate bacterial antibiotic resistance. Unfortunately antibiotics and other emerging contaminants like estrodials are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to selectively expel antibiotics, hormones, heavy metals and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways.To take advantage of this nanoscale selective disposal system we have engineered a chimeric bacterial efflux protein AcrB in tandem with a light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin to create a solar powered proteovesicle material capable of removing antibiotics, hormones and heavy metals from environmental water. I will present these results, along with more recent data on hormone removal to demonstrate the versatility of this strategy. Our system has been shown to be approximately twice as effective as the present treatment standard (granular activated carbon) for antibiotics, with the added commercial benefit of antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.


5:00pm

Sticky non-stick monomolecular layer synthetic biomedical and industrial coatings - 30 years of adhesive tape at the molecular level Keith Kent, KISS Polymers

Sticky non-stick monomolecular layer synthetic biomedical and industrial coatings - 30 years of adhesive tape at the molecular level

Keith Kent, KISS Polymers

The history of development of Self-Bonding Non-stick Coatings ("KSBP") shows revolutionary wound care - packaging to promote healing shows history of non-stick teeth and artificial hearts having amazing durability, from aerospace to geologic drilling. Easy and simple - no surface preparation needed by contaminating non-toxic "green" inert polymers.


5:30pm

Science Fiction to Science Fact: A journey through Molecular Imprinted Polymer Technology (MIP), Past Present and Future Kelly M Crawford, Director- Business Development and Training, 6th Wave Innovations Corp

Science Fiction to Science Fact: A journey through Molecular Imprinted Polymer Technology (MIP), Past Present and Future

Kelly M Crawford, Director- Business Development and Training, 6th Wave Innovations Corp

The presentation will provide information on available and evolving nanotechnology advancements that directly supports global efforts to counter the IED threat and other terrorist activities.


6:30pm

Cheese & Wine Reception


Tuesday, April 8, 2014

7:30am Continental Breakfast

Session 3: Manufacturing and Characterization of Nanomaterials

8:00am

Novel Characterization Techniques of Nanomaterials Robert D. Cormia (speaker), Foothill College, and Michael Oye, UC Santa Cruz

Novel Characterization Techniques of Nanomaterials

Robert D. Cormia (speaker), Foothill College, and Michael Oye, UC Santa Cruz

Nanocarbon materials including graphene, CNT, and the 'extended fullerene family' are of great interest in advanced materials engineering. The extended graphene/fullerene family has received particular attention in both synthesis and characterization. Approaches to analysis include XPS (X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy), Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM (Field Emission SEM), AFM (ATomic Force Microscopy) and TEM (Transmission Electron Spectroscopy), that provide a complete view of composition, chemistry, and structural information. Combining XPS, Raman, FE-SEM, and TEM, we have developed a protocol for characterizing graphene and mutliwalled fullerenes that is useful for process development of these novel materials.


8:30am

Tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy - optical tools at the nanoscale Andreas Ruediger, Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Canada

Tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy - optical tools at the nanoscale

Andreas Ruediger, Nanoelectronics-Nanophotonics, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Université du Québec, Canada

Optical spectroscopy is among the most versatile tools in physics, chemistry, material and life science covering a large spectral range and therefore a variety of light-matter interaction, both linear and non-linear. But regardless of whether the technique is absorption, fluorescence, elastic and inelastic scattering, second harmonic generation only to mention a few and regardless of the use of lasers for scanning techniques: the diffraction limit as quantified in the 19th century limits the spatial resolution to the order of the excitation wavelength. This corresponds to several hundred nanometers in the visible range and used to be a roadblock for the application in nanoscience. Complementary techniques including electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy pushed the resolution limit to the atomic level, however at the price of severe limitations to the chemical and structural information as compared to optical techniques.

In very recent years, the combination of scanning probe techniques such as scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy (STM and AFM respectively) with confocal laser scanning microscopy has pushed the limits of optical spectroscopy to new horizons. The concept relies on the use of a scanning probe tip to act as a local near-field amplifier ('nano-antenna') in the focus of a confocal laser-scanning microscope. The enhancement and confinement of the electromagnetic field is typically achieved through the resonant excitation of surface plasmons in noble-metal tips.

The proof of concept for this technique was delivered about a decade ago [1] and provided evidence for single-molecule sensitivity in resonant-Raman spectroscopy. With dedicated experimental setups, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has achieved spatial resolution of 10 nm and less while preserving most of the spectral information of conventional Raman spectroscopy. The experimental key challenge remains in the reproducible fabrication of resonating tips and their mid-term stability.

This presentation will briefly revisit some merits of conventional spectroscopy in physics and material science before introducing the basics of tip-enhanced spectroscopy. We report on a tip-enhanced Raman experiment for non-transparent, isolating samples as frequently encountered in oxide nanoelectronics, one of the research focuses of our team. We achieved a spatial resolution of 14 nm FWHM on carbon nanotubes [2]. Our latest results on lead titanate (PbTiO3) nanoislands grown by a template approach show that we achieve tip-enhanced Rayleigh and Raman scattering, the latter with an unprecedented spatial resolution of about 6 nm. Tip-enhanced optical spectroscopy clearly is a promising contender for future generations of surface characterization techniques and the new limits for optical resolution are yet to be determined.

References

  1. B. Pettinger, B. Ren, G. Picardi, R. Schuster, G. Ertl, 'Nanoscale Probing of Adsorbed Species by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy', Physical Review Letters, 92 (2004) 096101
  2. M. Nicklaus, C. Nauenheim, A. Krayev, V. Gavrilyuk, A. Belyaev, A. Ruediger, 'Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy with objective scanner on opaque samples', Review of Scientific Instruments, 83 (2012) 066102

9:00am

Laser-assisted manufacturing and characterization of antibacterial silver-titania nanocomposite films Yasir F Joya (speaker), Tao Wang, Zhu Liu and K. S. Joya

Laser-assisted manufacturing and characterization of antibacterial silver-titania nanocomposite films

Yasir F Joyaa,c (speaker), Tao Wangb, Zhu Liuc and K. S. Joyad

  1. Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Government College University, Pakistan
  2. Medical Genetics Research Group, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester, UK
  3. Corrosion and Protection Centre, The Mill, School of Materials, University of Manchester, UK
  4. Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, The Netherlands

Anatase form of titanium dioxide (TiO2) naturally possesses a well recognized antibacterial effect under ultraviolet (UV) excitation. However, anatase modified with silver nanoparticles (SNPs) exhibits even stronger antibacterial action in the natural day light. The aim of present research is to enhance the biological resistance of anatase by loading with SNPs against the Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) and Staphylococcus Aureus (S. Aureus) bacteria via laser surface engineering. For this purpose, a sol-gel TiO2 precursor was prepared and spin-coated on clean glass slides followed by silver ions self-adsorption from aqueous solution. As-deposited films were exposed to pulsed KrF excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns) to crystallize a silver-anatase nanostructure. A detailed characterization revealed that cubic as well as hexagonal SNPs adhering to the bumpy and porous rough texture of the anatase were formed by this process. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis also revealed a 30-40 nm anatase crystallite size, and silver nanoparticles in the range of 5-10 nm. A red-shift (516 nm) in photo-absorption by the anatase was observed by UV-visible spectroscopy after laser treatment. A pronounced improvement of the antibacterial response was observed against the S. Aureus and E. coli cells by laser irradiated silver-anatase films. The cells were inactivated within 60 minutes of contact with films even in the dark room ambient.


9:30am

Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles from alfalfa extracts José de Jesús Ibarra-Sánchez (speaker), Guadalupe de la Rosa Álvareza, Rosalba Fuentes-Ramírez, Susana Figueroa-Gerstenmaier, Adolfo Melitón Espíndola González, José Antonio Reyes-Aguilera, Ramón Castañeda Priego, José Jorge Delgado García, Universidad de Guanajuato, Mexico

Synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles from alfalfa extracts

José de Jesús Ibarra-Sánchez (speaker)a, Guadalupe de la Rosa Álvarezab, Rosalba Fuentes-Ramíreza, Susana Figueroa-Gerstenmaierb, Adolfo Melitón Espíndola Gonzáleza, José Antonio Reyes-Aguilerab, Ramón Castañeda Priegoc, José Jorge Delgado Garcíab

  1. Departamento de Ingeniería Química, División de Ciencias Naturales y Exactas, Campus Guanajuato, Universidad de Guanajuato, Noria Alta s/n, 36050, Guanajuato (Gto.) México
  2. Departamento de Ingenierías Química, Electrónica y Biomédica, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque # 103, 37150, León (Gto.) México
  3. Departamento de Ingeniería Física, División de Ciencias e Ingenierías, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, Loma del Bosque # 103, 37150, León (Gto.) México

In this work, we present the green synthesis of TiO2; focusing on several effects that impact the particle size distribution: an initial concentration of precursor (titanium isopropoxide), the ratio of hydrolysis, and different pH values. Nanoparticles were synthesized from a hydrolysis reaction using ethanol as a solvent; starting from titanium isopropoxide and sugars and carboxylic acids as additives extracted from alfalfa. This substrate has been harvested in the southern region of the city of Leon, Guanajuato in Mexico.


10:00am

Freezing-Assisted Fabrication of Monodisperse Hollow Metal Oxide Particles Xingmao Jiang (speaker), Zhen Chen, Shuai Liang, Jianzhong Min, Geng Zhang Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, China

Freezing-Assisted Fabrication of Monodisperse Hollow Metal Oxide Particles

Xingmao Jiang (speaker), Zhen Chen, Shuai Liang, Jianzhong Min, Geng Zhang Changzhou University, School of Petrochemical Engineering, China

Monodisperse hollow particles are receiving increasing attention for applications in drug delivery, nanoreactors, catalysis, meta-materials, wave scattering, microelectronics, lightweight composites, and sensing. Conventional fabrication methods such as sacrificial templating, chemical vapor deposition, electroplating coatings, and molecular beam epitaxy growth include a high cost, tedious synthesis of hollow metal oxides. There is a need to provide fabrication methods that are energy efficient, reliable, low cost, template-free, and nondestructive.

In this work, reverse emulsion containing aqueous droplets dispersed in an oil phase was subjected to a low temperature to freeze the aqueous cores into cube-shaped ice cores encased by the interfacial layer. This was followed by admixing a metal oxide precursor solution to react with the cube-shaped ice core at an interface to form a sol-gel metal oxide shell layer encasing the cube-shaped ice core. Highly monodisperse robust hollow metal oxide particles of uniform shell thickness were formed by removing the cube-shaped ice cores from the sol-gel metal oxide shell layer. One or more cargo components can be included in the aqueous core and remained in the cube-shaped ice core. Metal oxide precursor, fabrication temperatures, and relative amounts of water and surfactant were studied on the sol-gel reactions, interfacial mass transport, and their effects on the size and size monodispersity, shape, and hollow structures of the metal oxide particles.

This work was supported by Key Laboratory of Fine Petrochemical Engineering, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Catalytic Materials and Technology and PAPD of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.

Reference:

Jiang XM and C. Jeffrey Brinker, Freezing Assisted Fabrication of Nano Hollow Cubic Metal Oxides, US Patent 8,501,057 B1


10:30am

Coffee Break
Session 4: Open Innovation in Nanomaterials

10:45am

Keynote Lecture: Smart nano-coatings for materials protection: State of the art and future perspectives Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Pan-American, USA

Keynote Lecture: Smart nano-coatings for materials protection: State of the art and future perspectives

Abdel Salam Hamdy Makhlouf, College of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Texas Pan-American, USA

The concept of 'self-healing', 'self-repairing' or 'smart' materials has in recent years been developed experimentally in new types of manufactured materials creating a new class of multifunctional materials of self healing properties. Such properties add functionality to the materials to heal themselves automatically after mechanical, physical or chemical damages caused, for example, by scratch, impact, abrasion, erosion, friction, corrosion, wear, fire, ice, etc. The huge economic impact of the corrosion of metallic structures is a very important issue for all modern societies. Reports on the corrosion failures of bridges, buildings, aircrafts, automobiles, and gas and oil pipelines are not unusual. It is estimated that corrosion and its consequences cost developed nations between 3% and 5% of their gross domestic product. The process involving hexavalent chromates is the most effective and most widely used conversion coatings for corrosion protection for many metals and alloys. However, the carcinogenic effect and environmental waste due to chromates are well documented. The development of active corrosion protection systems for steels, Al and Mg substrates is an issue of prime importance in key industries, including petroleum, chemicals, transportation. The present work provides new insights towards the development of new protective systems with self-healing functionality. The proposed coatings characterize with the self-healing ability, ease of application at low cost and safety. The approach described herein can be used in many industrial applications where active corrosion protection of materials is required.


11:30am

Multicomponent Shell-Core Clusters: Differentially Sized Semiconductor Particles for Interfacial Charge Trapping Marye Anne Fox, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego

Multicomponent Shell-Core Clusters: Differentially Sized Semiconductor Particles for Interfacial Charge Trapping

Marye Anne Fox, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego

Shell-core composites constitute a class of nano-materials that permit broad and intense absorption in the visible and infra-red spectra, while simultaneously enhancing interfacial charge transfer. This talk will compare chemical transformations attained on surface-modified nanoparticles with those derived by advanced oxidation techniques.


12:00pm

Lunch

1:30pm

Integration of inorganic nanoparticles into polymer surfaces Dipl.-Ing. Jens Liebich (speaker), Dr. Holger Althues, Dr. Gerrit Mäder, Prof. Dr. Stefan Kaskel, Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS Dresden, Germany

Integration of inorganic nanoparticles into polymer surfaces

Dipl.-Ing. Jens Liebich (speaker), Dr. Holger Althues, Dr. Gerrit Mäder, Prof. Dr. Stefan Kaskel, Fraunhofer-Institut für Werkstoff-und Strahltechnik IWS Dresden, Germany

Scientists of the Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology present a new method for the integration of an electrical surface conductivity to polymers during the production or processing of a shaped tool. Applying a facile process step, a highly conductive network of carbon nanotubes (CNT) is integrated as a thin film into the polymer surface. The method applied is cost efficient, technically applicable and can be easily integrated into existing industrial facilities. Compared with conventional conductive additives, which are added to the bulk polymer, material costs are very low, as the CNT layer has only a few nanometer of thickness. Providing a surface of 1m² with a 50nm CNT layer requires only a few milligrams of CNTs.

A further advantage, in addition to the low price is that the mechanical and optical properties remain almost unchanged and the achievable surface resistance of significantly less than 109 Ω is highly advantageous as well. With conductivities lower than 109 Ω materials are deemed to be not electrostatically chargeable and the achieved conductivities, gained with this new method, have a value of 103 Ω.

SWCNTs, produced at the Fraunhofer IWS, achieved the lowest resistance. For the production route, a pulsed arc is used to vaporize a doped graphite target. Depending on the used gases, 250g SWCNT can be produced per day in our pilot plant. The diameters of the SWCNTs are 1.3nm ±0.1nm, they have a length of 10µm and are particularly of low defect, which is reflected in a G/D ratio of 25/1 (Raman spectroscopy).

The achieved transparency and the high flexibility of the CNT networks allow for their application in components, for example, as transparent electrodes, devices with antistatic surface, and antistatic packaging materials.


2:00pm

Few layer graphene: The next solid lubricant? Anirudha V. Sumant, Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory

Few layer graphene: The next solid lubricant?

Anirudha V. Sumant, Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory

Minimizing friction and wear-related mechanical failures remains as one of the greatest challenges in today's moving mechanical systems, and the search for new materials, coatings, and lubricants that can potentially avoid such failures continues around the globe. We demonstrate that few layer graphene not only helps in slowing down tribo-corrosion process but also drastically reduces wear (4 orders of magnitude) and friction (4-5 times) in the case of the most commonly used tribo-pairs, in particular, steel against steel sliding under 1 N load regardless of the surrounding environments (i.e., humid air or dry nitrogen). In addition, we show that graphene application as well as re-application does not require any additional processing steps other than just sprinkling a small amount of ethanol solution containing graphene flakes on the surface of interest making this process simple, cost effective, and environmental friendly. Most of all, unlike conventional solid lubricants which are all sensitive to environmental conditions, graphene offers the possibility of being effective regardless of the operating environment.

Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357

References:

  1. D. Berman, A. Erdemir, A.V. Sumant, "Few layer graphene to reduce wear and friction on sliding steel surfaces". Carbon, 54, 454-459 (2013).
  2. D. Berman, A. Erdemir, A.V. Sumant, "Reduced Wear and Friction Enabled by Graphene Layers on Sliding Steel Surfaces in Dry Nitrogen", Carbon, 59, 167-175 (2013) .
  3. D. Berman, A. Erdemir, A.V. Sumant, "Graphene: A new emerging lubricant", Materials Today (In Press).

2:30pm

ZnO-graphene hybrid quantum dots LED Won-Kook Choi, Head of Center, Interface Control Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KOREA

ZnO-graphene hybrid quantum dots LED

Won-Kook Choi, Head of Center, Interface Control Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, KOREA

A simple solution method was firstly used to prepare emissive hybrid quantum dots consisting of a ZnO core wrapped in a shell of single-layer graphene quantum dots (GQDs). In ZnO-graphene quasi core-shell QDs, a strain imposed on bent graphene was measured by analyzing the splitting of G subband in Raman measurement and creates a mid infrared bandgap opening of 250 meV. Through high resolution TEM, outer layer covered ZnO was disclosed as a single layer graphene. From time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) for ZnO-graphene, it was also revealed that life time of UV emission peak shortened from nsec to a few hundreds psec in time-resolved photoluminescence spectrum. The result can be strongly supported by quenching phenomenon of UV emission peak and can be well understood by the formation of charge-transfer exciton from ZnO to graphene. From following electroluminescent device structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/Poly-TPD/ZnO-graphene/Cs2CO3/Al, luminance was slightly brighter than 1,000 cd/m2. Recently, a large area planar lighting devices of 5x5 cm2 with 10 x10 matrix on glass was successfully fabricated and operated. Moreover, after dissolving ZnO-graphene by HCl and filtering, graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with high purity could be obtained and showed green emission PL independent of excitation-wavelength. New approaches for semiconductor oxide-nano carbon (C60, CNT) hybrid quantum dots will be discussed.


3:00pm

Coffee Break

3:30pm

Artificial Hierarchical Nano Structures with superhydrophobic response of Carbon Film for marine ship hull applications K. Balasubramanian (speaker) and B. N. Sahoo, Department of Materials Engineering, DIAT(DU), Pune, INDIA

Artificial Hierarchical Nano Structures with superhydrophobic response of Carbon Film for marine ship hull applications

K. Balasubramanian (speaker) and B. N. Sahoo, Department of Materials Engineering, DIAT(DU), Pune, INDIA

Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, antibiofouling, or drag reduction, interest in rendering surfaces water repellent has significantly grown within this decade. This amazing water-repellent property is also found in other biological systems comprising a plurality of flexible hairs. Several studies have confirmed that water wettability property is controlled by surface topographical features and surface chemical composition. Attempts on mimicking the so-called "lotus effect", where a high water contact angle (θc >150°) is accompanied by only a few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated in the literature through the controlling of surface chemistry and morphology. There is much interest in the development of superhydrophobic surfaces with different innovative techniques and materials to improve industrial processes. Recently, various carbon materials like carbon nanotubes (CNT), graphene, fullerene have received more attention of authors to robust superhydrophobic surfaces.

We describe here the study of wettability property of polymer composite of Expanded Polystyrene Foam (EPF) on mild steel fabricated by spray coating technique containing varied concentration of candle soot particles. Carbon soot layer comprised of 10-30 nm diameter of soot particles reveals loose fractal like network with amorphous structure which was revealed in Fig. 1(a). Wettability property was analyzed using static water contact angle and surface morphology was studied using atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. During spray coating, additives undergo pattern like hierarchical nano structures and enhance the surface roughness which increases the water contact angle. The maximum water contact angle of 151o was observed with concentration of 3 wt% carbon soot particles (Fig. 1(b)). Raman spectroscopy of carbon soot particles reveals the presence of D-band and G-band at 1299.46cm-1 and 1571.49cm-1 confirms the attribution of amorphous carbon and vibration of sp2 bonded carbon atoms with ordered carbon nanotubes respectively to facilate the enhancement in the hydrophobicity. The intensity ratio of these two bands affects the formation of quality of carbon nanotubes which enhances the hydrophobicity. The corrosion resistant performance of the superhydrophobic surface formed on mild steel was estimated. Here, we have investigated the correlation between the surface hierarchy water repellent surface and the concentration of soot particles for ship hull applications.


4:00pm

High oxygen reduction catalytic capacity of Pt nanoclusters and nanodendrites in Pt/DNA/reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid materials Kwang S. Kim, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea

High oxygen reduction catalytic capacity of Pt nanoclusters and nanodendrites in Pt/DNA/reduced-graphene-oxide hybrid materials

Kwang S. Kim, Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Korea

This talk will elaborate on how our extensive study on carbon systems [1,2] has enabled us to design functional nanomaterials and nanodevices. These functional systems include CVD grown graphene [3,4], water remediation [5], fuel cell catalysts [6,7], and electronic/ spintronic devices [8,9], photonic devices [10], and fast DNA sequencing devices [11]. Particular emphasis will be given to the recent deveopment of Pt nanoclusters and nanodendrites supported by genomic-double-stranded-DNA/reduced-graphene-oxide (gdsDNA/rGO) [6,7]. Compared to state-of-the-art catalysts, the as-synthesized hybrid materials display outstanding catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) (much higher than the 2015 DOE target value). Moreover, the hybrid exhibited a constant mass activity for the ORR over a wide pH range 1-13. Owing to these exceptional properties, the hybrid could be utilized in next generation electrochemical energy devices.

References:

  1. KS Kim et al. Chem. Rev. 100, 4145 (2000).
  2. V Georgakilas et al Chem. Rev. 112, 6156 (2012).
  3. KS Kim et al. Nature. 457, 706 (2009).
  4. S Bae et al. Nature Nanotech. 5, 574 (2010).
  5. V Chandra et al. ACS Nano. 4, 3979 (2010).
  6. JN Tiwari et al. Nature Commun. 4, 2221 (2013).
  7. JN Tiwari et al. ACS Nano. 7, 9223 (2013).
  8. WY Kim et al. Nature Nanotech. 3, 408 (2008).
  9. WY Kim et al. Acc. Chem. Res. 43, 111 (2010).
  10. JY Lee et al. Nature. 460, 498 (2009).
  11. SK Min et al. Nature Nanotech. 6, 162 (2011).

4:30pm

Into the Whereabouts of the Nanodielectric Revolution Michel F. Fréchette (speaker), Éric David, Nicole Demarquette
Hydro-Québec's research institute (IREQ) and École de technologie supérieure, Canada

Into the Whereabouts of the Nanodielectric Revolution

Michel F. Fréchette (speaker), Éric David, Nicole Demarquette
Hydro-Québec's research institute (IREQ) and École de technologie supérieure, Canada

After a noticed introduction in 2001, the concept of nanodielectrics has been intensively applied to the development and adaptation of polymer nanocomposites (PNCs). The present contribution is a good opportunity to have a look into the situation of nanodielectrics, up to now and towards tomorrow.

What do we mean by nanodielectrics? Some basic notions will be stated and detailed with the aim of illustrating the depth and full potential of this concept. It is certainly not just composites.

Great efforts involving PNC containing insulating inorganic nano-additives have been invested and it paid off. Despite the fact that, at the beginning, non-optimized conditions of the composites blurred their potential and despite the low degree of self-assembly of this class of composites, some impressive observations were made from which we learned and achievements were attained. It is worth to consider this progress, specially to construct some sort of a guideline to summarize the findings and delineate the choices to be made for attaining some sought properties. The CIGRÉ Working Group D1.40 is presently looking into this and some elements of a guideline will be discussed.

Since some composites showed great potentials, this finding was considered positive and supported developments towards electrotechnical applications. Some have been publicized, others were only recently disclosed, some patented, and some others kept rather secret. An overview of the applications will be given with some insight from the European project ANASTASIA dealing with futuristic insulation of hydro-generator bars.

Some attention will be given to polymer composite cases where semi-conducting and conducting additives are used. Some remain like insulators for which 2 orders of magnitude in conductivity can be tailored. In some other cases, non-linear field-grading may be produced. The use of nano-metals, e.g. Fe, brings noticeable effects, viz. Coulomb blockade effect, useful in developing high energy density composites. So here the traditional area of applications will be enlarged on the basis of modified electrical transport properties.

The nanodielectrics of second generation have started to emerge in which there is a higher-degree of self-assembly, e.g. POSS + microphase, block copolymer/blends nanocomposites, higher complexity, e.g. Epoxy powder + Graphene oxide and/or for which the fabrication techniques play an important role. Many cases will be exemplified, and the impact on the increase potentiality for tailoring dielectric properties discussed. Emphasis will be put on some fabrication techniques, in particular ball-milling used in a context of transforming the interface between a polymer matrix and an inorganic phase.

The second-generation nanodielectrics comprise formidable promises, specially allowing a design approach for dielectric materials systems. Thus, the third nanowave relative to advanced dielectrics must await us for a while.



Wednesday, April 9, 2014

7:30am Continental Breakfast

Session 5: Nanomaterials in Medicine and the Environment

8:00am

Protein Stabilization by Glycosylation in Nano-Sized Stimulus-Responsive Controlled Release Systems for Intracellular Delivery Kai Griebenow, Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico

Protein Stabilization by Glycosylation in Nano-Sized Stimulus-Responsive Controlled Release Systems for Intracellular Delivery

Kai Griebenow, Chemistry Department, University of Puerto Rico

Modern treatment options in cancer and other therapies increasingly rely on passive and active targeting. In this context, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) have emerged as an attractive class of drug delivery carriers for therapeutic agents. We recently explored the covalent immobilization of model proteins into MSN to generate stimulus-responsive controlled release systems. The model proteins carbonic anhydrase (CA) and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) were coupled to sulfosuccinimidyl 6-[3'(2-pyridyldithio)-propionamido]hexanoate (Sulfo-LC-SPDP) and subsequently covalently immobilized into MSN via thiol-disulfide interchange. The model proteins could be released from MSN with 10 mM glutathione which represents intra-cellular redox conditions while it remained bound to the MSN at extra-cellular redox conditions represented by 1 µM glutathione. Bioactivity of the model proteins was maintained well during immobilization and release. Studies using human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells showed good biocompatibility but immobilized Cyt-c induced only little apoptosis in the HeLa cells. This situation was dramatically improved by chemical glycosylation of the protein. We will also highlight recent data on endocytosis of Cyt-c loaded MSN and endosomal escape obtained by confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we will present data on active targeting using a nanosized smart delivery system including a targeting ligand.


8:30am

Ultrasound Imaging, Gamma Scintigraphy and HIFU Therapy with Perfluorocarbon Loaded Iron-Silica Nanoshells Alexander Liberman, Zhe Wu, Christopher Barback, Robert Viveros, Sarah L. Blair, David Vera, Leslie Ellies, Robert F. Mattrey, William C Trogler and Andrew C. Kummel (speaker), University of California, San Diego

Ultrasound Imaging, Gamma Scintigraphy and HIFU Therapy with Perfluorocarbon Loaded Iron-Silica Nanoshells

Alexander Libermana, Zhe Wub, Christopher Barbackb, Robert Viverosd, Sarah L. Blaire, David Verab, Leslie Elliesf, Robert F. Mattreyb, William C Troglerb and Andrew C. Kummelb (speaker)

  1. Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego
  2. Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego
  3. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego
  4. Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego
  5. Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego
  6. Department of Pathology, University of California, San Diego

The reported positive margin rate from wire localized excisions of breast cancers is approximately 20-50%; however, by preoperatively injecting a radio-active seed into the tumor under CT guidance, the excision rate is halved because the surgeon can constantly reorient the dissection to place the seed in the center of the specimen. Unfortunately, radioactive seed localization has several safety challenges, only single focus can be localized, and incisions are required to implant the seeds, so it is rarely employed. As a safe alternative, gas-filled hollow Fe-doped silica particles have been developed, which can be used for ultrasound-guided surgery even for multiple foci. The function of the Fe doping is to render the silica shells biodegradable. The particles are synthesized through a sol-gel method on a polystyrene template, and calcined to create hollow, rigid nanoshells. The Fe-doped silica shell is derived from tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and iron ethoxide, which forms a rigid, nanoporous shell upon calcination. The nanoshells are filled with perfluoropentane (PFP) vapor or liquid. The flourous phase is contained within the porous shell due to its extremely low solubility in water. Quantification of particle functionality, signal persistence and acoustical properties have been performed using various phantoms including excised human mastectomy tissue. In vitro studies have shown that continuous particle imaging time is up to approximately 45 minutes. In vivo particle injection longevity studies have been performed in tumor bearing mouse models show signal presence up to ten days post injection. To study biodistribution, nanoshells were functionalized with DTPA and radiolabeled with Indium-111 and then imaged by gamma scintigraphy over 72 hours. Scintigraphic imaging and gamma counting confirm that particles undergoing IV delivery to tumor bearing mice will passively accumulate in the tumors which may allow for tumor detection and therapuetic applications.

These perfluorocarbon filled silica shells break under acoustic excitation to release uncovered gas pockets which increase acoustic energy absorption and reduce acoustic cavitation threshold locally. Therefore they may also be employed as a sensitizing agent in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy. Traditional ultrasound agents which can be used as a HIFU senstizing agent pose several potential drawbacks such as poor in vivo persistence (minutes) and high risk during continuous perfusion. Preliminary in vivo HIFU ablation studies show that very few particles are needed in order to develop a sensitizing effect to HIFU thereby substantially reduce the amount of HIFU exposure necessary to achieve an ablative effect. It was found that nanoshells systemically adminstered to breast tumor bearing mice could be cavitated by HIFU 24 hours after administration. This mechanical cavitation caused liquification within the focal volume of the HIFU which contained the nanoshells within seconds of the HIFU application. This may potentially allow for a larger area to be ablated in less time with less power.


9:00am

Non leaching type of antimicrobial nanocomposites with value-added properties Fengge Gao (speaker), Rinat Nigmatullin and Yuanchen Cao, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, UK

Non leaching type of antimicrobial nanocomposites with value-added properties

Fengge Gao (speaker), Rinat Nigmatullin and Yuanchen Cao, School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham, UK

The current market of antimicrobial materials is essentially dominate by various different forms of silver biocide based products. The challenge faced by the silver based antimicrobial materials is biocide leaching in application. This leaching behaviour causes either rapid or progressive loss of biocidal activity, concerns of leached biocides to the pollution of environments and health and safety to human life and, the limitation of applications such as wound dressing and contact type of food and drink packaging. In order to overcome this problem, a new technology has been developed by applying nano-fillers and polymeric biocides in this study. The technology is able to control biocide leaching through the design of the structure of different segments in the biocide molecules and gives value-added properties such the enhancement of mechanical properties, barrier properties and fire retardancy. The materials are also friendly to human tissues to promote the growth of tissue cells. This made it ideal for contact type of medical and food and drink applications. The paper will demonstrate its significance to the extension of shelf-life of food when it used as food packaging materials.


9:30am

Prediction of Adsorption Parameters by Computer Modeling in Nanomaterials. Diana Khashimova, Dilp.-Ing., Environmental and Chemical Technology Engineer, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

Prediction of Adsorption Parameters by Computer Modeling in Nanomaterials.

Diana Khashimova a, b

  1. Dilp.-Ing., Environmental and Chemical Technology Engineer, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
  2. PhD candidate at Hamburg University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Germany

With the growth of industrial application of nanomaterials, the properties of particular nanostructures are becoming better understood and are being mathematically modeled for predictive purposes for manufacturing research and development of unprecedented hi-tech composites.

The focus is on sorption properties of Zeolites manufactured for rendering selective adsorption properties capable of separating components of a range of mixtures with differences in molecular size, shape, and polarity.

In this paper, modeling of adsorption process by Configurational Biased Monte Carlo (CBMC) numerical simulations in grand canonical ensemble is presented and compared to benchmark test results demonstrating promising potential for application to other properties and processes of interest.

The given numerical simulation can be a powerful, accurate tool for predicting functional properties of different type of molecular-structure configurations of Zeolites.

Experimental determination of multicomponent adsorption is difficult and time consuming in comparison with the measurement of single component adsorption parameters, such as adsorption isotherms.

Reported are computer simulations on the adsorption of alkanes in the all-silica zeolites MFI (channel type) and DDR (cage type) which proved successful in replicating experimental data on adsorption of light hydrocarbons - alkanes, such as methane, ethane and butane. Their binary and ternary mixtures have been studied as well.

The study investigated whether multicomponent adsorption isotherm can be obtained from single and binary mixture simulations. Theoretical models used for predicting the mixture adsorption, based on application of ideal (IAST) and real adsorbed solution theory (RAST) are applied.

The numerical simulations based on pure component adsorption parameters were successfully used to generate reliable results for multicomponent adsorption, which will yield significant cost and time savings.


10:00am

Coffee Break

10:30am

Nanomaterial Characterisation Challenges P.G. Kippax, P.G. Clarke, C.C. Murphy (speaker), M. Kaszuba, U. Nobbmann, Malvern Instruments

Nanomaterial Characterisation Challenges

P.G. Kippaxa, P.G. Clarkea, C.C. Murphya (speaker), M. Kaszubaa, U. Nobbmannb

  1. Malvern Instruments Limited (UK)
  2. Malvern Instruments Inc (USA)

Conservative estimates of worldwide 2010 nanomaterial production volumes would be ~ 270K tons with a market value of ~ $6bn. The production volume in 2016 is conservately estimated to reach ~ 350K driven by demand from applications in electronics, energy, medicine, chemicals, coatings and catalysts. The increasing amount of nanomaterials available in the market creates great opportunities, however it also has the potential for some risk caused by the toxicological effect of these materials when released into the environment.

There has been a large amount of research and investment into the toxicological effects of nanomaterials on the environment and there is - as yet - no definitive findings on the relative weighting and importance of different Physico –chemical parameters. However research has indicated that important (nanoparticle) parameters to monitor / consider include size, shape, surface area, surface energy and surface chemistry.

One of the more recent developments in this area is the European Commission definition from 2011 of the term "nanomaterial" . This definition indicates a "Nanomaterial means a natural, incidental or manufactured material containing particles, in an unbound state or as an aggregate or as an agglomerate and where, for more than 50% or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimensions is in the size range 1nm - 100nm….", is driving a requirement for higher resolution measurement techniques.

Within this context and background we review some of the latest development activity using light scattering techniques and separations devices aimed at addressing the requirements for number based (quantitative) measurement on Nanomaterials. The work focuses on the characterisation of metallic nanoparticles (silver, gold) and how separation devices (FFF, GPC, Fluidics) can be combined with dectectors to offer an improvement in the resolution in line with the demands of the EU nanomaterials definition.


11:00am

Environment Friendly Industrial Nanotechnologies O. Figovsky (speaker), N. Blank, Nanotech Industries

Environment Friendly Industrial Nanotechnologies

O. Figovskya (speaker), N. Blankb

  1. Nanotech Industries, USA
  2. Polymate, Ltd., International Nanotechnology Research Center Israel

One of the most interesting and perspective directions in material engineering of the last years is development of technology of nanocomposite materials consisting from two or more phases with precise interphase border and nanostructured materials based on interpenetrated polymer network. Israel is one of leaders in nanotechnology, not only in fundamental academic researches but mainly in industrial researches and founding start-up companies. Some important results in the nanotechnology material engineering field in Israel are summarized in the paper.


11:30pm

Conference Adjournment